Blessings on the Mountains of Israel

1As for you, son of man, prophesy to the mountains of Israel, and say: ‘O mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord! 2 This is what the sovereign Lord says: The enemy has spoken against you, saying “Aha!” and, “The ancient heights1 have become our property!”’ 3 So prophesy and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Surely because they have made you desolate and crushed you from all directions, so that you have become the property of the rest of the nations, and have become the subject of gossip2 and slander among the people, 4 therefore, O mountains of Israel, hear the word of the sovereign Lord: This is what the sovereign Lord says to the mountains and hills, the ravines and valleys, and to the desolate ruins and the abandoned cities that have become prey and an object of derision to the rest of the nations round about – 5 therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Surely I have spoken in the fire of my zeal against the rest of the nations, and against all Edom, who with great joy and utter contempt have made my land their property and prey, because of its pasture.’

6Therefore prophesy concerning the land of Israel, and say to the mountains and hills, the ravines and valleys, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I have spoken in my zeal and in my anger, because you have endured the insults of the nations. 7 So this is what the sovereign Lord says: I vow3 that the nations around you will endure insults as well.

8‘But you, mountains of Israel, will grow your branches, and bear your fruit for my people Israel; for they will arrive soon.4 9 For indeed, I am on your side;5 I will turn to you, and you will be plowed and planted. 10 I will multiply your people6the whole house of Israel, all of it. The cities will be populated and the ruins rebuilt. 11 I will increase the number of people and animals on you; they will increase and be fruitful.7 I will cause you to be inhabited as in ancient times, and will do more good for you than at the beginning of your history.8 Then you will know that I am the Lord. 12 I will lead people, my people Israel, across you; they will possess you and you will become their inheritance. No longer will you bereave them of their children.

13‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Because they are saying to you, “You are a devourer of men, and bereave your nation of children,” 14 therefore you will no longer devour people and no longer bereave your nation of children, declares the sovereign Lord. 15 I will no longer subject you to9 the nationsinsults; no longer will you bear the shame of the peoples, and no longer will you bereave10 your nation, declares the sovereign Lord.’

16 The word of the Lord came to me: 17 Son of man, when the house of Israel was living on their own land, they defiled it by their behavior11 and their deeds. In my sight their behavior was like the uncleanness of a woman having her monthly period. 18 So I poured my anger on them12 because of the blood they shed on the land and because of the idols with which they defiled it.13 19 I scattered them among the nations; they were dispersed throughout foreign countries. In accordance with their behavior and their deeds I judged them. 20 But when they arrived in the nations where they went, they profaned my holy name. It was said of them, ‘These are the people of the Lord, yet they have departed from his land.’ 21 I was concerned for my holy reputation14 which the house of Israel profaned among the nations where they went.

22Therefore say to the house of Israel, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: It is not for your sake that I am about to act, O house of Israel, but for the sake of my holy reputation15 which you profaned among the nations where you went. 23 I will magnify16 my great name that has been profaned among the nations, that you have profaned among them. The nations will know that I am the Lord, declares the sovereign Lord, when I magnify myself among you in their sight.

24‘I will take you from the nations and gather you from all the countries; then I will bring you to your land. 25 I will sprinkle you with pure water17 and you will be clean from all your impurities. I will purify you from all your idols. 26 I will give you a new heart, and I will put a new spirit within you. I will remove the heart of stone18 from your body and give you a heart of flesh.19 27 I will put my Spirit within you;20 I will take the initiative and you will obey my statutes21 and carefully observe my regulations.22 28 Then you will live in the land I gave to your fathers; you will be my people, and I will be your God.23 29 I will save you from all your uncleanness. I will call for the grain and multiply it; I will not bring a famine on you. 30 I will multiply the fruit of the trees and the produce of the fields, so that you will never again suffer the disgrace of famine among the nations. 31 Then you will remember your evil behavior24 and your deeds which were not good; you will loathe yourselves on account of your sins and your abominable deeds. 32 Understand that25 it is not for your sake I am about to act, declares the sovereign Lord. Be ashamed and embarrassed by your behavior, O house of Israel.

33‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: In the day I cleanse you from all your sins, I will populate the cities and the ruins will be rebuilt. 34 The desolate land will be plowed, instead of being desolate in the sight of everyone who passes by. 35 They will say, “This desolate land has become like the garden of Eden; the ruined, desolate, and destroyed cities are now fortified and inhabited.” 36 Then the nations which remain around you will know that I, the Lord, have rebuilt the ruins and replanted what was desolate. I, the Lord, have spoken – and I will do it!’

37This is what the sovereign Lord says: I will allow the house of Israel to ask me to do this for them:26 I will multiply their people like sheep.27 38 Like the sheep for offerings, like the sheep of Jerusalem28 during her appointed feasts, so will the ruined cities be filled with flocks of people. Then they will know that I am the Lord.”

136:2tn Or “high places.” 236:3tn Heb “lip of the tongue.” 336:7tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.” 436:8tn Heb “they draw near to arrive.” 536:9tn Heb “I (am) toward you.” 636:10tn Heb “I will multiply on you human(s).” 736:11sn These verbs occur together in Gen 1:22, 28; 9:1. 836:11tn Heb “your beginning.” 936:15tn Heb “cause you to hear.” 1036:15tc The MT reads תַכְשִׁלִי (takhshiliy), a metathesis for תַשְׁכִלִי (tashkhiliy) from the root שָׁכַל (shakhal) which is used in each of the previous verses. 1136:17tn Heb “way.” 1236:18sn See Ezek 7:8; 9:8; 14:19; 20:8, 13, 21; 22:22; 30:15. 1336:18sn For the concept of defiling the land in legal literature, see Lev 18:28; Deut 21:23. 1436:21tn Heb “name.” 1536:22sn In Ezek 20:22 God refrained from punishment for the sake of his holy name. Here God’s reputation is the basis for Israel’s restoration. 1636:23tn Or “sanctify,” Heb “make holy.” 1736:25sn The Lord here uses a metaphor from the realm of ritual purification. For the use of water in ritual cleansing, see Exod 30:19-20; Lev 14:51; Num 19:18; Heb 10:22. 1836:26sn That is, a heart which symbolizes a will that is stubborn and unresponsive (see 1 Sam 25:37). In Rabbinic literature a “stone” was associated with an evil inclination (b. Sukkah 52a). 1936:26sn That is, a heart which symbolizes a will that is responsive and obedient to God. 2036:27tn Or “in the midst of you.” The word “you” is plural. 2136:27tn Heb “and I will do that which in my statutes you will walk.” The awkward syntax (verb “to do, act” + accusative sign + relative clause + prepositional phrase + second person verb) is unique, though Eccl 3:14 contains a similar construction. In the last line of that verse we read that “God acts so that (relative pronoun) they fear before him.” However, unlike Ezek 36:27, the statement has no accusative sign before the relative pronoun. 2236:27tn Heb “and my laws you will guard and you will do them.” Jer 31:31-34 is parallel to this passage. 2336:28sn This promise reflects the ancient covenantal ideal (see Exod 6:7). 2436:31tn Heb “ways.” 2536:32tn Heb “Let it be known.” 2636:37tn The Niphal verb may have a tolerative function here, “Again (for) this I will allow myself to be sought by the house of Israel to act for them.” Or it may be reflexive: “I will reveal myself to the house of Israel by doing this also.” 2736:37sn Heb “I will multiply them like sheep, human(s).” 2836:38map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4.