Amaziah’s Reign over Judah

1 In the second year of the reign of Israel’s King Joash son of Joahaz,1 Joash’s2 son Amaziah became king over Judah. 2 He was twenty-five years old when he began to reign, and he reigned for twenty-nine years in Jerusalem.3 His mother4 was Jehoaddan, who was from Jerusalem. 3 He did what the Lord approved,5 but not like David his father. He followed the example of his father Joash.6 4 But the high places were not eliminated; the people continued to offer sacrifices and burn incense on the high places.

5 When he had secured control of the kingdom,7 he executed the servants who had assassinated his father.8 6 But he did not execute the sons of the assassins. He obeyed the Lord’s commandment as recorded in the law scroll of Moses,9Fathers must not be put to death for what their sons do,10 and sons must not be put to death for what their fathers do.11 A man must be put to death only for his own sin.”12

7 He defeated13 10,000 Edomites in the Salt Valley; he captured Sela in battle and renamed it Joktheel, a name it has retained to this very day. 8 Then Amaziah sent messengers to Jehoash son of Jehoahaz son of Jehu, king of Israel. He said, “Come, let’s meet face to face.”14 9 King Jehoash of Israel sent this message back to King Amaziah of Judah, “A thornbush in Lebanon sent this message to a cedar in Lebanon, ‘Give your daughter to my son as a wife.’ Then a wild animal15 of Lebanon came by and trampled down the thorn.16 10 You thoroughly defeated Edom17 and it has gone to your head!18 Gloat over your success,19 but stay in your palace. Why bring calamity on yourself? Why bring down yourself and Judah along with you?20 11 But Amaziah would not heed the warning,21 so King Jehoash of Israel attacked.22 He and King Amaziah of Judah met face to face23 in Beth Shemesh of Judah. 12 Judah was defeated by Israel, and each man ran back home.24 13 King Jehoash of Israel captured King Amaziah of Judah, son of Jehoash son of Ahaziah, in Beth Shemesh. He25 attacked26 Jerusalem and broke down the wall of Jerusalem from the Gate of Ephraim to the Corner Gate – a distance of about six hundred feet.27 14 He took away all the gold and silver, all the items found in the Lord’s temple and in the treasuries of the royal palace, and some hostages.28 Then he went back to Samaria.29

( 15 The rest of the events of Jehoash’s30 reign, including all his accomplishments and his successful war with King Amaziah of Judah, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.31 16 Jehoash passed away32 and was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel. His son Jeroboam replaced him as king.)

17 King Amaziah son of Joash of Judah lived for fifteen years after the death of King Jehoash son of Jehoahaz of Israel. 18 The rest of the events of Amaziah’s reign are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Judah.33 19 Conspirators plotted against him in Jerusalem,34 so he fled to Lachish. But they sent assassins after him35 and they killed him there. 20 His body was carried back by horses36 and he was buried in Jerusalem with his ancestors in the city of David. 21 All the people of Judah took Azariah, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in his father Amaziah’s place. 22 Azariah37 built up Elat and restored it to Judah after the king38 had passed away.39

Jeroboam II’s Reign over Israel

23 In the fifteenth year of the reign of Judah’s King Amaziah, son of Joash, Jeroboam son of Joash became king over Israel. He reigned for forty-one years in Samaria.40 24 He did evil in the sight of41 the Lord; he did not repudiate42 the sinful ways of Jeroboam son of Nebat who encouraged Israel to sin. 25 He restored the border of Israel from Lebo Hamath in the north to the sea of the Arabah in the south,43 in accordance with the word of the Lord God of Israel announced through44 his servant Jonah son of Amittai, the prophet from Gath Hepher. 26 The Lord saw Israel’s intense suffering;45 everyone was weak and incapacitated and Israel had no deliverer.46 27 The Lord had not decreed that he would blot out Israel’s memory47 from under heaven,48 so he delivered them through Jeroboam son of Joash.

28 The rest of the events of Jeroboam’s reign, including all his accomplishments, his military success in restoring Israelite control over Damascus and Hamath, are recorded in the scroll called the Annals of the Kings of Israel.49 29 Jeroboam passed away50 and was buried in Samaria with the kings of Israel.51 His son Zechariah replaced him as king.

114:1sn The name Joahaz is an alternate form of Jehoahaz. 214:1sn The referent here is Joash of Judah (see 12:21), not Joash of Israel, mentioned earlier in the verse. 314:2map For location see Map5-B1; Map6-F3; Map7-E2; Map8-F2; Map10-B3; JP1-F4; JP2-F4; JP3-F4; JP4-F4. 414:2tn Heb “the name of his mother.” 514:3tn Heb “he did what was proper in the eyes of the Lord.” 614:3tn Heb “according to all which Joash his father had done, he did.” 714:5tn Heb “when the kingdom was secure in his hand.” 814:5tn Heb “he struck down his servants, the ones who had struck down the king, his father.” 914:6tn Heb “as it is written in the scroll of the law of Moses which the Lord commanded, saying.” 1014:6tn Heb “on account of sons.” 1114:6tn Heb “on account of fathers.” 1214:6sn This law is recorded in Deut 24:16. 1314:7tn Or “struck down.” 1414:8tn Heb “let us look at each other [in the] face.” The expression refers here to meeting in battle. See v. 11. 1514:9tn Heb “the animal of the field.” 1614:9sn Judah is the thorn in the allegory. Amaziah’s success has deceived him into thinking he is on the same level as the major powers in the area (symbolized by the cedar). In reality he is not capable of withstanding an attack by a real military power such as Israel (symbolized by the wild animal). 1714:10tn Or “you have indeed defeated Edom.” 1814:10tn Heb “and your heart has lifted you up.” 1914:10tn Heb “be glorified.” 2014:10tn Heb “Why get involved in calamity and fall, you and Judah with you?” 2114:11tn Heb “did not listen.” 2214:11tn Heb “went up.” 2314:11tn Heb “looked at each other [in the] face.” 2414:12tn Heb “and Judah was struck down before Israel and they fled, each to his tent.” 2514:13tc The MT has the plural form of the verb, but the final vav (ו) is virtually dittographic. The word that immediately follows in the Hebrew text begins with a yod (י). The form should be emended to the singular, which is consistent in number with the verb (“he broke down”) that follows. 2614:13tn Heb “came to.” 2714:13tn Heb “four hundred cubits.” The standard cubit in the OT is assumed by most authorities to be about eighteen inches (45 cm) long. 2814:14tn Heb “the sons of the pledges.” 2914:14map For location see Map2-B1; Map4-D3; Map5-E2; Map6-A4; Map7-C1. 3014:15sn Jehoash and Joash are alternate forms of the same name. 3114:15tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Jehoash, and all which he did and his strength, [and] how he fought with Amaziah king of Judah, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?” 3214:16tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.” 3314:18tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Amaziah, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Judah?” 3414:19tn Heb “and they conspired against him [with] a conspiracy in Jerusalem.” 3514:19tn Heb “and they sent after him to Lachish.” 3614:20tn Heb “and they carried him on horses.” 3714:22tn Heb “he”; the referent (Azariah) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 3814:22sn This must refer to Amaziah. 3914:22tn Heb “lay with his fathers.” 4014:23map For location see Map2-B1; Map4-D3; Map5-E2; Map6-A4; Map7-C1. 4114:24tn Heb “in the eyes of.” 4214:24tn Heb “turn away from all.” 4314:25tn The phrases “in the north” and “in the south” are added in the translation for clarification. 4414:25tn Heb “which he spoke by the hand of.” 4514:26tc Heb “for the Lord saw the very bitter affliction of Israel.” This translation assumes an emendation of מֹרֶה (moreh), which is meaningless here, to ַהמַּר (hammar), the adjective “bitter” functioning attributively with the article prefixed. This emendation is supported by the LXX, Syriac Peshitta, and Vulgate. Another option would be מַר הוּא (mar hu’), “it was bitter.” 4614:26tn Heb “[there was] none but the restrained, and [there was] none but the abandoned, and there was no deliverer for Israel.” On the meaning of the terms עָצוּר (’atsur) and עָזוּב (’azur), see the note at 1 Kgs 14:10. 4714:27tn Heb “name.” 4814:27tn The phrase “from under heaven” adds emphasis to the verb “blot out” and suggest total annihilation. For other examples of the verb מָחָה (makhah), “blot out,” combined with “from under heaven,” see Exod 17:14; Deut 9:14; 25:19; 29:20. 4914:28tn Heb “As for the rest of the events of Jeroboam, and all which he did and his strength, [and] how he fought and how he restored Damascus and Hamath to Judah in Israel, are they not written on the scroll of the events of the days of the kings of Israel?” The phrase “to Judah” is probably not original; it may be a scribal addition by a Judahite scribe who was trying to link Jeroboam’s conquests with the earlier achievements of David and Solomon, who ruled in Judah. The Syriac Peshitta has simply “to Israel.” M. Cogan and H. Tadmor (II Kings [AB], 162) offer this proposal, but acknowledge that it is “highly speculative.” 5014:29tn Heb “lay down with his fathers.” 5114:29tn The MT has simply “with the kings of Israel,” which appears to stand in apposition to the immediately preceding “with his fathers.” But it is likely that the words “and he was buried in Samaria” have been accidentally omitted from the text. See 13:13 and 14:16.