Instructions on Prayer

1 Now1 Jesus2 was praying in a certain place. When3 he stopped, one of his disciples said to him, “Lord, teach us to pray, just as John4 taught5 his disciples.” 2 So he said to them, “When you pray,6 say:

Father,7 may your name be honored;8
may your kingdom come.9
3 Give us each day our daily bread,10
4 and forgive us our sins,
for we also forgive everyone who sins11 against us.
And do not lead us into temptation.”12

5 Then13 he said to them, “Suppose one of you14 has a friend, and you go to him15 at midnight and say to him, ‘Friend, lend me three loaves of bread,16 6 because a friend of mine has stopped here while on a journey,17 and I have nothing to set before18 him.’ 7 Then19 he will reply20 from inside, ‘Do not bother me. The door is already shut, and my children and I are in bed.21 I cannot get up and give you anything.’22 8 I tell you, even though the man inside23 will not get up and give him anything because he is his friend, yet because of the first man’s24 sheer persistence25 he will get up and give him whatever he needs.

9So26 I tell you: Ask,27 and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and the door28 will be opened for you. 10 For everyone who asks29 receives, and the one who seeks finds, and to the one who knocks, the door30 will be opened. 11 What father among you, if your31 son asks for32 a fish, will give him a snake33 instead of a fish? 12 Or if he asks for an egg, will give him a scorpion?34 13 If you then, although you are35 evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will the heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit36 to those who ask him!

Jesus and Beelzebul

14 Now37 he was casting out a demon that was mute.38 When39 the demon had gone out, the man who had been mute began to speak,40 and the crowds were amazed. 15 But some of them said, “By the power of Beelzebul,41 the ruler42 of demons, he casts out demons.” 16 Others, to test43 him,44 began asking for45 a sign46 from heaven. 17 But Jesus,47 realizing their thoughts, said to them,48Every kingdom divided against itself is destroyed,49 and a divided household falls.50 18 So51 if52 Satan too is divided against himself, how will his kingdom stand? I ask you this because53 you claim that I cast out demons by Beelzebul. 19 Now if I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your sons54 cast them55 out? Therefore they will be your judges. 20 But if I cast out demons by the finger56 of God, then the kingdom of God57 has already overtaken58 you. 21 When a strong man,59 fully armed, guards his own palace,60 his possessions are safe.61 22 But62 when a stronger man63 attacks64 and conquers him, he takes away the first man’s65 armor on which the man relied66 and divides up67 his plunder.68 23 Whoever is not with me is against me,69 and whoever does not gather with me scatters.70

Response to Jesus’ Work

24When an unclean spirit71 goes out of a person,72 it passes through waterless places73 looking for rest but74 not finding any. Then75 it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’76 25 When it returns,77 it finds the house78 swept clean and put in order.79 26 Then it goes and brings seven other spirits more evil than itself, and they go in and live there, so80 the last state of that person81 is worse than the first.”82

27 As83 he said these things, a woman in the crowd spoke out84 to him, “Blessed is the womb85 that bore you and the breasts at which you nursed!86 28 But he replied,87Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey88 it!

The Sign of Jonah

29 As89 the crowds were increasing, Jesus90 began to say, “This generation is a wicked generation; it looks for a sign,91 but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah.92 30 For just as Jonah became a sign to the people of Nineveh,93 so the Son of Man will be a sign94 to this generation.95 31 The queen of the South96 will rise up at the judgment97 with the people98 of this generation and condemn them, because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon – and now,99 something greater100 than Solomon is here! 32 The people101 of Nineveh will stand up at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because they repented when Jonah preached to them102 – and now,103 something greater than Jonah is here!

Internal Light

33No one after lighting a lamp puts it in a hidden place104 or under a basket,105 but on a lampstand, so that those who come in can see the light. 34 Your eye is the lamp of your body. When your eye is healthy,106 your whole body is full of light, but when it is diseased,107 your body is full of darkness. 35 Therefore see to it108 that the light in you109 is not darkness. 36 If110 then111 your whole body is full of light, with no part in the dark,112 it will be as full of light as when the light of a lamp shines on you.”113

Rebuking the Pharisees and Experts in the Law

37 As he spoke,114 a Pharisee115 invited Jesus116 to have a meal with him, so he went in and took his place at the table.117 38 The118 Pharisee was astonished when he saw that Jesus119 did not first wash his hands120 before the meal. 39 But the Lord said to him, “Now you Pharisees clean121 the outside of the cup and the plate, but inside you are full of greed and wickedness.122 40 You fools!123 Didn’t the one who made the outside make the inside as well?124 41 But give from your heart to those in need,125 and126 then everything will be clean for you.127

42But woe to you Pharisees!128 You give a tenth129 of your mint,130 rue,131 and every herb, yet you neglect justice132 and love for God! But you should have done these things without neglecting the others.133 43 Woe to you Pharisees! You love the best seats134 in the synagogues135 and elaborate greetings136 in the marketplaces! 44 Woe to you!137 You are like unmarked graves, and people138 walk over them without realizing it!139

45 One of the experts in religious law140 answered him, “Teacher, when you say these things you insult141 us too.” 46 But Jesus142 replied,143Woe to you experts in religious law as well!144 You load people145 down with burdens difficult to bear, yet you yourselves refuse to touch146 the burdens with even one of your fingers! 47 Woe to you! You build147 the tombs of the prophets whom your ancestors148 killed. 48 So you testify that you approve of149 the deeds of your ancestors,150 because they killed the prophets151 and you build their152 tombs!153 49 For this reason also the wisdom154 of God said, ‘I will send them prophets and apostles, some of whom they will kill and persecute,’ 50 so that this generation may be held accountable155 for the blood of all the prophets that has been shed since the beginning156 of the world,157 51 from the blood of Abel158 to the blood of Zechariah,159 who was killed160 between the altar and the sanctuary.161 Yes, I tell you, it will be charged against162 this generation. 52 Woe to you experts in religious law! You have taken away163 the key to knowledge! You did not go in yourselves, and you hindered164 those who were going in.”

53 When he went out from there, the experts in the law165 and the Pharisees began to oppose him bitterly,166 and to ask him hostile questions167 about many things, 54 plotting against168 him, to catch169 him in something he might say.

111:1tn Grk “And it happened that while.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. 211:1tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 311:1tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. 411:1sn John refers to John the Baptist. 511:1sn It was not unusual for Jewish groups to have their own prayer as a way of expressing corporate identity. Judaism had the Eighteen Benedictions and apparently John the Baptist had a prayer for his disciples as well. 611:2sn When you pray. What follows, although traditionally known as the Lord’s prayer, is really the disciples’ prayer. It represents how they are to approach God, by acknowledging his uniqueness and their need for his provision and protection. 711:2tc Most mss, including later majority (A C D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33vid Ï it), add ἡμῶν ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς (Jhmwn Jo en toi" oujranoi", “our [Father] in heaven”) here. This makes the prayer begin like the version in Matt 6:9. The shorter version is read by Ì75 א B (L: + ἡμῶν) 1 700 pc as well as some versions and fathers. Given this more weighty external evidence, combined with the scribal tendency to harmonize Gospel parallels, the shorter reading is God is addressed in terms of intimacy (Father). The original Semitic term here was probably Abba. The term is a little unusual in a personal prayer, especially as it lacks qualification. It is not the exact equivalent of “Daddy” (as is sometimes popularly suggested), but it does suggest a close, familial relationship. 811:2tn Grk “hallowed be your name.” 911:2tc Most mss (א A C D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33vid Ï it) read at the end of the verse “may your will be done on earth as [it is] in heaven,” making this version parallel to Matt 6:10. The shorter reading is found, however, in weighty mss (Ì75 B L pc), and cannot be easily explained as arising from the longer Your kingdom come represents the hope for the full manifestation of God’s promised rule. 1011:3tn Or “Give us bread each day for the coming day,” or “Give us each day the bread we need for today.” The term ἐπιούσιος (epiousio") does not occur outside of early Christian literature (other occurrences are in Matt 6:11 and Didache 8:2), so its meaning is difficult to determine. Various suggestions include “daily,” “the coming day,” and “for existence.” See BDAG 376 s.v.; L&N 67:183, 206. 1111:4tn Grk “who is indebted to us” (an idiom). The picture of sin as debt is not unusual. As for forgiveness offered and forgiveness given, see 1 Pet 3:7. 1211:4tc Most mss (א1 A C D W Θ Ψ 070 Ë13 33 Ï it syc,p,h) add “but deliver us from the evil one,” an assimilation to Matt 6:13. The shorter reading has better attestation (Ì75 א*,2 B L 1 700 pc vg sa Or). Internally, since the mss that have the longer reading here display the same tendency throughout the Lord’s Prayer to assimilate the Lukan version to the Matthean version, the shorter reading should be regarded as authentic in Or “into a time of testing.”sn The request Do not lead us into temptation is not to suggest that God causes temptation, but is a rhetorical way to ask for his protection from sin. 1311:5tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative. 1411:5tn Grk “Who among you will have a friend and go to him.” 1511:5tn Grk “he will go to him.” 1611:5tn The words “of bread” are not in the Greek text, but are implied by ἄρτους (artou", “loaves”). 1711:6tn Grk “has come to me from the road.” 1811:6sn The background to the statement I have nothing to set before him is that in ancient Middle Eastern culture it was a matter of cultural honor to be a good host to visitors. 1911:7tn Κἀκεῖνος (kakeino") has been translated “Then he.” 2011:7tn Grk “answering, he will say.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “he will reply.” 2111:7tn Grk “my children are with me in the bed.” In Jewish homes in the time of Jesus, the beds were often all together in one room; thus the householder may be speaking of individual beds (using a collective singular) rather than a common bed. 2211:7tn The syntax of vv. 6-7 is complex. In the Greek text Jesus’ words in v. 6 begin as a question. Some see Jesus’ question ending at v. 6, but the reply starting in v. 8 favors extending the question through the entire illustration. The translation breaks up the long sentence at the beginning of v. 7 and translates Jesus’ words as a statement for reasons of English style. 2311:8tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man in bed in the house) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 2411:8tn Grk “his”; the referent (the first man mentioned) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 2511:8tn The term ἀναίδεια (anaideia) is hard to translate. It refers to a combination of ideas, a boldness that persists over time, or “audacity,” which comes close. It most likely describes the one making the request, since the unit’s teaching is an exhortation about persistence in prayer. Some translate the term “shamelessness” which is the term’s normal meaning, and apply it to the neighbor as an illustration of God responding for the sake of his honor. But the original question was posed in terms of the first man who makes the request, not of the neighbor, so the teaching underscores the action of the one making the request. 2611:9tn Here καί (kai, from καγώ [kagw]) has been translated as “so” to indicate the conclusion drawn from the preceding parable. 2711:9sn The three present imperatives in this verse (Ask…seek…knock) are probably intended to call for a repeated or continual approach before God. 2811:9tn Grk “it”; the referent (a door) is implied by the context and has been specified in the translation for clarity. 2911:10sn The actions of asking, seeking, and knocking are repeated here from v. 9 with the encouragement that God does respond. 3011:10tn Grk “it”; the referent (a door) is implied by the context and has been specified in the translation for clarity. 3111:11tn Grk “the”; in context the article is used as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215). 3211:11tc Most mss (א A C D L W Θ Ψ Ë1,13 33 Ï lat syc,p,h bo) have “bread, does not give him a stone instead, or” before “a fish”; the longer reading, however, looks like a harmonization to Matt 7:9. The shorter reading is thus preferred, attested by Ì45,75 B 1241 pc sys sa. 3311:11sn The snake probably refers to a water snake. 3411:12sn The two questions of vv. 11-12 expect the answer, “No father would do this!” 3511:13tn The participle ὑπάρχοντες (Juparconte") has been translated as a concessive participle. 3611:13sn The provision of the Holy Spirit is probably a reference to the wisdom and guidance supplied in response to repeated requests. Some apply it to the general provision of the Spirit, but this would seem to look only at one request in a context that speaks of repeated asking. The teaching as a whole stresses not that God gives everything his children want, but that God gives the good that they need. The parallel account in Matthew (7:11) refers to good things where Luke mentions the Holy Spirit. 3711:14tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. 3811:14tn The phrase “a demon that was mute” should probably be understood to mean that the demon caused muteness or speechlessness in its victim, although it is sometimes taken to refer to the demon’s own inability to speak (cf. TEV, “a demon that could not talk”). 3911:14tn Grk “And it happened that when.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here δέ (de) has not been translated either. 4011:14sn This miracle is different from others in Luke. The miracle is told entirely in one verse and with minimum detail, while the response covers several verses. The emphasis is on explaining what Jesus’ work means. 4111:15tn Grk “By Beelzebul.”sn Beelzebul is another name for Satan. So some people recognized Jesus’ work as supernatural, but called it diabolical. 4211:15tn Or “prince.” 4311:16tn Grk “testing”; the participle is taken as indicating the purpose of the demand. 4411:16tn The pronoun “him” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context. 4511:16tn Grk “seeking from him.” The imperfect ἐζήτουν (ezhtoun) is taken ingressively. It is also possible to regard it as iterative (“kept on asking”). 4611:16sn What exactly this sign would have been, given what Jesus was already doing, is not clear. But here is where the fence-sitters reside, refusing to commit to him. 4711:17tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 4811:17sn Jesus here demonstrated the absurdity of the thinking of those who maintained that he was in league with Satan and that he actually derived his power from the devil. He first teaches (vv. 17-20) that if he casts out demons by the ruler of the demons, then in reality Satan is fighting against himself, with the result that his kingdom has come to an end. He then teaches (v. 21-22) about defeating the strong man to prove that he does not need to align himself with the devil because he is more powerful. Jesus defeated Satan at his temptation (4:1-13) and by his exorcisms he clearly demonstrated himself to be stronger than the devil. The passage reveals the desperate condition of the religious leaders, who in their hatred for Jesus end up attributing the work of the Holy Spirit to Satan. 4911:17tn Or “is left in ruins.” 5011:17tn Grk “and house falls on house.” This phrase pictures one house collapsing on another, what is called today a “house of cards.” 5111:18tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate that the clause that follows is a logical conclusion based on the preceding examples. 5211:18tn This first class condition, the first of three “if” clauses in the following verses, presents the example vividly as if it were so. In fact, all three conditions in these verses are first class. The examples are made totally parallel. The expected answer is that Satan’s kingdom will not stand, so the suggestion makes no sense. Satan would not seek to heal. 5311:18tn Grk “because.” “I ask you this” is supplied for the sake of English. 5411:19sn Most read your sons as a reference to Jewish exorcists (cf. “your followers,” L&N 9.4; for various views see D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1077-78), but more likely this is a reference to the disciples of Jesus themselves, who are also Jewish and have been healing as well (R. J. Shirock, “Whose Exorcists are they? The Referents of οἱ υἱοὶ ὑμῶν at Matthew 12:27/Luke 11:19,” JSNT 46 [1992]: 41-51). If this is a reference to the disciples, then Jesus’ point is that it is not only him, but those associated with him whose power the hearers must assess. The following reference to judging also favors this reading. 5511:19tn The pronoun “them” is not in the Greek text, but is implied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context. 5611:20sn The finger of God is a figurative reference to God’s power (L&N 76.3). This phrase was used of God’s activity during the Exodus (Exod 8:19). 5711:20sn The kingdom of God is a major theme of Jesus. It is a realm in which Jesus rules and to which those who trust him belong. See Luke 6:20; 11:20; 17:20-21. 5811:20tn The phrase ἔφθασεν ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς (efqasen efJuma") is important. Does it mean merely “approach” (which would be reflected in a translation like “has come near to you”) or actually “come upon” (as in the translation given above, “has already overtaken you,” which has the added connotation of suddenness)? The issue here is like the one in 10:9 (see note there on the phrase “come on”). Is the arrival of the kingdom merely anticipated or already in process? Two factors favor arrival over anticipation here. First, the prepositional phrase “upon you” suggests arrival (Dan 4:24, 28 Theodotion). Second, the following illustration in vv. 21-23 looks at the healing as portraying Satan being overrun. So the presence of God’s authority has arrived. See also L&N 13.123 for the translation of φθάνω (fqanw) as “to happen to already, to come upon, to come upon already.” 5911:21tn The referent of the expression “a strong man” is Satan. 6011:21tn The word αὐλή (aulh) describes any building large and elaborate enough to have an interior courtyard, thus “dwelling, palace, mansion” (L&N 7.6). 6111:21tn Grk “his goods are in peace.” 6211:22tn Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation. 6311:22tn The referent of the expression “a stronger man” is Jesus. 6411:22tn Grk “stronger man than he attacks.” 6511:22tn Grk “his”; the referent (the first man mentioned) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 6611:22tn Grk “on which he relied.” 6711:22tn Or “and distributes.” 6811:22sn Some see the imagery here as similar to Eph 4:7-10, although no opponents are explicitly named in that passage. Jesus has the victory over Satan. Jesus’ acts of healing mean that the war is being won and the kingdom is coming. 6911:23sn Whoever is not with me is against me. The call here is to join the victor. Failure to do so means that one is being destructive. Responding to Jesus is the issue. 7011:23sn For the image of scattering, see Pss. Sol. 17:18. 7111:24sn This is a reference to an evil spirit. See Luke 4:33. 7211:24tn Grk “man.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females. 7311:24sn The background for the reference to waterless places is not entirely clear, though some Jewish texts suggest spirits must have a place to dwell, but not with water (Luke 8:29-31; Tob 8:3). Some suggest that the image of the desert or deserted cities as the places demons dwell is where this idea started (Isa 13:21; 34:14). 7411:24tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in this context. 7511:24tc ‡ Most mss, including a few early and important ones (Ì45 א* A C D W Ψ Ë1,13 Ï lat), lack τότε (tote, “then”). Other mss, including some early and important ones (Ì75 א2 B L Θ Ξ 070 33 579 892 1241 pc co), have the adverb. Although the external evidence better supports the longer reading, the internal evidence is on the side of the shorter, for conjunctions and adverbs were frequently added by copyists to remove asyndeton and to add clarification. The shorter reading is thus preferred. The translation, however, adds “Then” because of English stylistic requirements. NA27 has τότε in brackets indicating doubts as to its authenticity. 7611:24tn Grk “I will return to my house from which I came.” 7711:25tn Grk “comes.” 7811:25tn The words “the house” are not in Greek but are implied. 7911:25sn The image of the house swept clean and put in order refers to the life of the person from whom the demon departed. The key to the example appears to be that no one else has been invited in to dwell. If an exorcism occurs and there is no response to God, then the way is free for the demon to return. Some see the reference to exorcism as more symbolic; thus the story’s only point is about responding to Jesus. This is possible and certainly is an application of the passage. 8011:26tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the concluding point of the story. 8111:26tn Grk “man.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females. 8211:26sn The point of the story is that to fail to respond is to risk a worse fate than when one started. 8311:27tn Grk “And it happened that as.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated. Here δέ (de) has not been translated. 8411:27tn Grk “lifted up her voice and said.” This idiom is somewhat redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “spoke out.” 8511:27tn For this term see L&N 8.69. 8611:27sn Both the reference to the womb and the breasts form a figure of speech called metonymy. In this case the parts are mentioned instead of the whole; the meaning is “Blessed is your mother!” The warnings seem to have sparked a little nervousness that brought forth this response. In the culture a mother was valued for the accomplishments of her son. So this amounts to a compliment to Jesus. 8711:28tn Grk “said.” 8811:28sn This is another reference to hearing and doing the word of God, which here describes Jesus’ teaching; see Luke 8:21. 8911:29tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. 9011:29tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 9111:29sn The mention of a sign alludes back to Luke 11:16. Given what Jesus had done, nothing would be good enough. This leads to the rebuke that follows. 9211:29sn As the following comparisons to Solomon and Jonah show, in the present context the sign of Jonah is not an allusion to Jonah being three days in the belly of the fish, but to Jesus’ teaching about wisdom and repentance. 9311:30tn Grk “to the Ninevites.” What the Ninevites experienced was Jonah’s message (Jonah 3:4, 10; 4:1). 9411:30tn The repetition of the words “a sign” are not in the Greek text, but are implied and are supplied here for clarity. 9511:30tc Only the Western ms D and a few Itala mss add here a long reference to Jonah being in the belly of the fish for three days and nights and the Son of Man being three days in the earth, apparently harmonizing the text to the parallel in Matt 12:40. 9611:31sn On the queen of the South see 1 Kgs 10:1-3 and 2 Chr 9:1-12, as well as Josephus, Ant. 8.6.5-6 (8.165-175). The South most likely refers to modern southwest Arabia, possibly the eastern part of modern Yemen, although there is an ancient tradition reflected in Josephus which identifies this geo-political entity as Ethiopia. 9711:31sn For the imagery of judgment, see Luke 10:13-15 and 11:19. The warnings are coming consistently now. 9811:31tn Grk “men”; the word here (ἀνήρ, anhr) usually indicates males or husbands, but occasionally is used in a generic sense of people in general, as is the case here (cf. BDAG 79 s.v. 1, 2). The same term, translated the same way, occurs in v. 32. 9911:31tn Grk “behold.” 10011:31sn The message of Jesus was something greater than what Solomon offered. On Jesus and wisdom, see Luke 7:35; 10:21-22; 1 Cor 1:24, 30. 10111:32tn See the note on the word “people” in v. 31. 10211:32tn Grk “at the preaching of Jonah.”sn The phrase repented when Jonah preached to them confirms that in this context the sign of Jonah (v. 30) is his message. 10311:32tn Grk “behold.” 10411:33tn Or perhaps “in a cellar” (L&N 28.78). The point is that the light of Jesus’ teaching has been put in public view. 10511:33tc The phrase “or under a basket” is lacking in some important and early mss (Ì45,75 L Γ Ξ 070 Ë1 700* 1241 2542 pc sys sa). It is hard to decide in this case, since the inclusion of “or under a basket” is widely attested by some early and decent witnesses, as well as the overwhelming majority of mss (א A B C D W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï latt). The parallel passage in Luke 8:16 does not include “under a basket.” If the phrase “under a basket” were added as a harmonization with Mark 4:21 and Matt 5:15, it is perhaps surprising that scribes did not add the phrase at Luke 8:16 as well. It seems somewhat more likely that a scribe copying Luke would be inclined to harmonize 11:33 with 8:16 by omitting the phrase here. Thus, the words “or under a basket” seem to have the marks of Or “a bowl”; this refers to any container for dry material of about eight liters (two gallons) capacity. It could be translated “basket, box, bowl” (L&N 6.151). 10611:34tn Or “sound” (so L&N 23.132 and most scholars). A few scholars take this word to mean something like “generous” here (L&N 57.107), partly due to the immediate context of this saying in Matt 6:22 which concerns money, in which case the “eye” is a metonymy for the entire person (“if you are generous”). 10711:34tn Or “when it is sick” (L&N 23.149).sn There may be a slight wordplay here, as this term can also mean “evil,” so the figure uses a term that points to the real meaning of being careful as to what one pays attention to or looks at. 10811:35tn This is a present imperative, calling for a constant watch (L&N 24.32; ExSyn 721). 10911:35sn Here you is a singular pronoun, individualizing the application. 11011:36tn This is a first class condition in the Greek text, so the example ends on a hopeful, positive note. 11111:36tn Grk “Therefore”; the same conjunction as at the beginning of v. 35, but since it indicates a further inference or conclusion, it has been translated “then” here. 11211:36tn Grk “not having any part dark.” 11311:36tn Grk “it will be completely illumined as when a lamp illumines you with its rays.” 11411:37tn The use of the aorist infinitive here should probably be translated “as he spoke” rather than “while he was speaking” (see ExSyn 595). The Pharisee did not necessarily interrupt Jesus to issue the invitation. 11511:37sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17. 11611:37tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 11711:37tn Grk “and reclined at table,” as 1st century middle eastern meals were not eaten while sitting at a table, but while reclining on one’s side on the floor with the head closest to the low table and the feet farthest away. 11811:38tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated. 11911:38tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 12011:38tn The words “his hands” are not in the Greek text, but have been supplied for Washing before meals was a cultural practice that was described in the OT, but not prescribed there (Gen 18:4; Judg 19:21). It was apparently related to concern about contracting ceremonial uncleanness (Lev 11:31-38; t. Demai 2.11-12). 12111:39sn The allusion to washing (clean the outside of the cup) shows Jesus knew what they were thinking and deliberately set up a contrast that charged them with hypocrisy and majoring on minors. 12211:39tn Or “and evil.” 12311:40sn You fools is a rebuke which in the OT refers to someone who is blind to God (Ps 14:1, 53:1; 92:6; Prov 6:12). 12411:40tn The question includes a Greek particle, οὐ (ou), that expects a positive reply. God, the maker of both, is concerned for what is both inside and outside. 12511:41tn Grk “Give the things inside as alms.” Three different approaches have been taken to the syntax and meaning of this phrase: (1) τὰ ἐνόντα (ta enonta, “the things inside”) is an accusative of respect (“give alms with respect to the things inside”); (2) τὰ ἐνόντα is an adverbial accusative (“give alms inwardly,” i.e., from the heart); (3) the word translated “alms” represents a mistranslation of the original Aramaic term “cleanse,” so the statement urges the hearers to “cleanse the things inside.” According to D. L. Bock (Luke [BECNT], 2:1115) the latter meaning is unlikely because the present verse is independent of Matt 23:26, not parallel to it, and makes good sense as it In Jewish culture giving alms to the poor was a very important religious observance; it was meant to be an act of mercy, kindness, and love (D. L. Bock, Luke [BECNT], 2:1114). The implication from the text is that the Pharisees gave alms, but without any of the spiritual concern which should have motivated those generous actions. Here Jesus commands the Pharisees to give from within themselves to those in need instead of just giving of their possessions. In so doing they would show true inner purity acceptable to God. This is in keeping with the author’s social concerns elsewhere in the Gospel (cf., e.g., 1:52-53, 4:18-19, 6:20-21, 14:13). 12611:41tn Grk “and behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this clause has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1). 12711:41sn The expression everything will be clean for you refers to the agreement that should exist between the overt practice of one’s religious duties, such as almsgiving, and the inner condition of one’s heart, including true love for God and the poor; one is not only to wash the outside of the cup and plate, but the inside as well, since as Jesus said, God created the inside too. Religious duties are not to be performed hypocritically, i.e., for the applause and esteem of people, but rather they are to be done out of a deep love for God and a sensitivity to and concern for the needs of others. Then, everything will be clean, both hearts and lives. 12811:42tn Grk “Woe to you…because you…” The causal particle ὅτι (Joti) has not been translated here for rhetorical effect (and so to the end of this chapter). 12911:42tn Or “you tithe mint.” 13011:42sn These small herbs were tithed with great care (Mishnah, m. Demai 2:1). 13111:42tn Grk “and rue.” Καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or Rue was an evergreen herb used for seasoning. 13211:42sn Justice was a major theme of OT ethics (Mic 6:8; Zech 7:8-10). 13311:42tn Grk “those”; but this has been translated as “the others” to clarify which are meant. 13411:43tn Or “seats of honor.” The term here is plural and is not a reference only to the lead “seat of Moses” in the synagogue, but includes the front seats near the ark. 13511:43sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15. 13611:43tn Grk “and the greetings.”sn The later Jewish summary of oral tradition, the Talmud, notes elaborate greetings for rabbis. The rebuke here is for pride. 13711:44tc Most mss (A [D] W Θ Ψ Ë13 Ï it) have “experts in the law and Pharisees, hypocrites” after “you,” but this looks like an assimilation to the parallel in Matt 23:25, 27, 29. The shorter reading has earlier attestation from a variety of reliable mss (Ì45,75 א B C L Ë1 33 1241 2542 lat sa). 13811:44tn Grk “men.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females. 13911:44sn In Judaism to come into contact with the dead or what is associated with them, even without knowing it, makes one unclean (Num 19:11-22; Lev 21:1-3; Mishnah, m. Demai 2:3). To Pharisees, who would have been so sensitive about contracting ceremonial uncleanness, it would have been quite a stinging rebuke to be told they caused it. 14011:45sn That is, an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law. They worked closely with the Pharisees. 14111:45tn For this term, see Matt 22;6; Luke 18:32; Acts 14:5; 1 Thess 2:2. 14211:46tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 14311:46tn Grk “said.” 14411:46tn Here “as well” is used to translate καί (kai) at the beginning of the statement. 14511:46tn Grk “men.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anqrwpo"), referring to both males and females. 14611:46tn Grk “you yourselves do not touch.” This could mean one of two things: (1) Either they make others do what they themselves do not (through various technical exceptions) or (2) they make no effort to help the others fulfill what they are required to do. Considering the care these religious figures are said to have given to the law, the second option is more likely (see L&N 18.11). 14711:47sn The effect of what the experts in the law were doing was to deny the message of the prophets and thus honor their death by supporting those who had sought their removal. The charge that this is what previous generations did shows the problem is chronic. As T. W. Manson said, the charge here is “The only prophet you honor is a dead prophet!” (The Sayings of Jesus, 101). 14811:47tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.” 14911:48tn Grk “you are witnesses and approve of.” 15011:48tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.” 15111:48tn Grk “them”; the referent (the prophets) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 15211:48tn “Their,” i.e., the prophets. 15311:48tc The majority of mss list a specific object (“their tombs”), filling out the sentence (although there are two different words for “tombs” among the mss, as well as different word orders: αὐτῶν τὰ μνημεῖα (autwn ta mnhmeia; found in A C W Θ Ψ 33 Ï) and τοὺς τάφους αὐτῶν (tou" tafou" autwn; found in Ë1,[13] 2542 pc). This suggests that early copyists had no term in front of them but felt the verb needed an object. But since a wide distribution of early Alexandrian and Western mss lack these words (Ì75 א B D L 579 1241 it sa), it is likely that they were not part of the original text of Luke. Nevertheless, the words “their tombs” are inserted in the translation because of requirements of English style. 15411:49sn The expression the wisdom of God is a personification of an attribute of God that refers to his wise will. 15511:50tn Or “that this generation may be charged with”; or “the blood of all the prophets… may be required from this generation.” This is a warning of judgment. These people are responsible for the shedding of prophetic blood. 15611:50tn Or “foundation.” However, this does not suggest a time to the modern reader. 15711:50tn The order of the clauses in this complicated sentence has been rearranged to simplify it for the modern reader. 15811:51sn Gen 4:10 indicates that Abel’s blood cried out for justice. 15911:51sn It is not clear which Zechariah is meant here. It is probably the person mentioned in 2 Chr 24:20-25. 16011:51tn Or “who perished.” 16111:51tn Or “and the temple”; Grk “and the house,” but in this context a reference to the house of God as a place of sanctuary. 16211:51tn Or “required from.” 16311:52sn You have taken away the key to knowledge is another stinging rebuke. They had done the opposite of what they were trying to do. 16411:52tn Or “you tried to prevent.” 16511:53tn Or “the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21. 16611:53tn Or “terribly.” 16711:53tn For this term see L&N 33.183. 16811:54tn Grk “lying in ambush against,” but this is a figurative extension of that meaning. 16911:54tn This term was often used in a hunting context (BDAG 455 s.v. θηρεύω; L&N 27.30). Later examples of this appear in Luke 20.