Jacob Cheats Esau out of the Blessing

1 When1 Isaac was old and his eyes were so weak that he was almost blind,2 he called his older3 son Esau and said to him, “My son!” “Here I am!” Esau4 replied. 2 Isaac5 said, “Since6 I am so old, I could die at any time.7 3 Therefore, take your weapons – your quiver and your bow – and go out into the open fields and hunt down some wild game8 for me. 4 Then prepare for me some tasty food, the kind I love, and bring it to me. Then9 I will eat it so that I may bless you10 before I die.”

5 Now Rebekah had been listening while Isaac spoke to his son Esau.11 When Esau went out to the open fields to hunt down some wild game and bring it back,12 6 Rebekah said to her son Jacob, “Look, I overheard your father tell your brother Esau, 7 Bring me some wild game and prepare for me some tasty food. Then I will eat13 it and bless you14 in the presence of the Lord15 before I die.’ 8 Now then, my son, do16 exactly what I tell you!17 9 Go to the flock and get me two of the best young goats. I’ll prepare18 them in a tasty way for your father, just the way he loves them. 10 Then you will take19 it to your father. Thus he will eat it20 and21 bless you before he dies.”

11But Esau my brother is a hairy man,” Jacob protested to his mother Rebekah, “and I have smooth skin!22 12 My father may touch me! Then he’ll think I’m mocking him23 and I’ll bring a curse on myself instead of a blessing.” 13 So his mother told him, “Any curse against you will fall on me,24 my son! Just obey me!25 Go and get them for me!

14 So he went and got the goats26 and brought them to his mother. She27 prepared some tasty food, just the way his father loved it. 15 Then Rebekah took her older son Esau’s best clothes, which she had with her in the house, and put them on her younger son Jacob. 16 She put the skins of the young goats28 on his hands29 and the smooth part of his neck. 17 Then she handed30 the tasty food and the bread she had made to her son Jacob.

18 He went to his father and said, “My father!” Isaac31 replied, “Here I am. Which are you, my son?32 19 Jacob said to his father, “I am Esau, your firstborn. I’ve done as you told me. Now sit up33 and eat some of my wild game so that you can bless me.”34 20 But Isaac asked his son, “How in the world35 did you find it so quickly,36 my son?” “Because the Lord your God brought it to me,”37 he replied.38 21 Then Isaac said to Jacob, “Come closer so I can touch you,39 my son, and know for certain if you really are my son Esau.”40 22 So Jacob went over to his father Isaac, who felt him and said, “The voice is Jacob’s, but the hands are Esau’s.” 23 He did not recognize him because his hands were hairy, like his brother Esau’s hands. So Isaac blessed Jacob.41 24 Then he asked, “Are you really my son Esau?” “I am,” Jacob42 replied. 25 Isaac43 said, “Bring some of the wild game for me to eat, my son.44 Then I will bless you.”45 So Jacob46 brought it to him, and he ate it. He also brought him wine, and Isaac47 drank. 26 Then his father Isaac said to him, “Come here and kiss me, my son.” 27 So Jacob48 went over and kissed him. When Isaac caught the scent49 of his clothing, he blessed him, saying,

Yes,50 my son smells
like the scent of an open field
which the Lord has blessed.
28 May God give you
the dew of the sky51
and the richness52 of the earth,
and plenty of grain and new wine.
29 May peoples serve you
and nations bow down to you.
You will be53 lord54 over your brothers,
and the sons of your mother will bow down to you.55
May those who curse you be cursed,
and those who bless you be blessed.”

30 Isaac had just finished blessing Jacob, and Jacob had scarcely left56 his father’s57 presence, when his brother Esau returned from the hunt.58 31 He also prepared some tasty food and brought it to his father. Esau59 said to him, “My father, get up60 and eat some of your son’s wild game. Then you can bless me.”61 32 His father Isaac asked,62 “Who are you?” “I am your firstborn son,”63 he replied, “Esau! 33 Isaac began to shake violently64 and asked, “Then who else hunted game and brought it to me? I ate all of it just before you arrived, and I blessed him.65 He will indeed be blessed!

34 When Esau heard66 his father’s words, he wailed loudly and bitterly.67 He said to his father, “Bless me too, my father! 35 But Isaac68 replied, “Your brother came in here deceitfully and took away69 your blessing.” 36 Esau exclaimed, “‘Jacobis the right name for him!70 He has tripped me up71 two times! He took away my birthright, and now, look, he has taken away my blessing!” Then he asked, “Have you not kept back a blessing for me?

37 Isaac replied to Esau, “Look! I have made him lord over you. I have made all his relatives his servants and provided him with grain and new wine. What is left that I can do for you, my son? 38 Esau said to his father, “Do you have only that one blessing, my father? Bless me too!”72 Then Esau wept loudly.73

39 So his father Isaac said to him,

Indeed,74 your home will be
away from the richness75 of the earth,
and away from the dew of the sky above.
40 You will live by your sword
but you will serve your brother.
When you grow restless,
you will tear off his yoke
from your neck.”76

41 So Esau hated77 Jacob because of the blessing his father had given to his brother.78 Esau said privately,79The time80 of mourning for my father is near; then I will kill81 my brother Jacob!

42 When Rebekah heard what her older son Esau had said,82 she quickly summoned83 her younger son Jacob and told him, “Look, your brother Esau is planning to get revenge by killing you.84 43 Now then, my son, do what I say.85 Run away immediately86 to my brother Laban in Haran. 44 Live with him for a little while87 until your brother’s rage subsides. 45 Stay there88 until your brother’s anger against you subsides and he forgets what you did to him. Then I’ll send someone to bring you back from there.89 Why should I lose both of you in one day?90

46 Then Rebekah said to Isaac, “I am deeply depressed91 because of these daughters of Heth.92 If Jacob were to marry one of these daughters of Heth who live in this land, I would want to die!93

127:1tn The clause begins with the temporal indicator (“and it happened”), making it subordinate to the main clause that follows later in the sentence. 227:1tn Heb “and his eyes were weak from seeing.” 327:1tn Heb “greater” (in terms of age). 427:1tn Heb “he”; the referent (Esau) is specified in the translation for clarity. 527:2tn Heb “he”; the referent (Isaac) is specified in the translation for clarity. 627:2tn The particle הִנֵּה (hinneh, “look”) here introduces a logically foundational statement, upon which the coming instruction will be based. 727:2tn Heb “I do not know the day of my death.” 827:3tn The Hebrew word is to be spelled either צַיִד (tsayid) following the marginal reading (Qere), or צֵידָה (tsedah) following the consonantal text (Kethib). Either way it is from the same root as the imperative צוּדָה (tsudah, “hunt down”). 927:4tn Following the imperative, the cohortative (with the prefixed conjunction) indicates purpose or result. 1027:4tn Heb “so that my soul may bless you.” The use of נַפְשִׁי (nafshi, “my soul”) as the subject emphasizes that the blessing will be made with all Isaac’s desire and vitality. The conjunction “so that” closely relates the meal to the blessing, suggesting that this will be a ritual meal in conjunction with the giving of a formal blessing. 1127:5tn The disjunctive clause (introduced by a conjunction with the subject, followed by the predicate) here introduces a new scene in the story. 1227:5tc The LXX adds here “to his father,” which may have been accidentally omitted in the MT. 1327:7tn Following the imperative, the cohortative (with the prefixed conjunction) indicates purpose or result. 1427:7tn The cohortative, with the prefixed conjunction, also expresses logical sequence. See vv. 4, 19, 27. 1527:7tn In her report to Jacob, Rebekah plays down Isaac’s strong desire to bless Esau by leaving out נַפְשִׁי (nafshi, “my soul”), but by adding the phrase “in the presence of the Lord,” she stresses how serious this matter is. 1627:8tn Heb “listen to my voice.” The Hebrew idiom means “to comply; to obey.” 1727:8tn Heb “to that which I am commanding you.” 1827:9tn Following the imperative, the cohortative (with the prefixed conjunction) indicates purpose or result. 1927:10tn The form is the perfect tense with the vav (ו) consecutive. It carries forward the tone of instruction initiated by the command to “go…and get” in the preceding verse. 2027:10tn The form is the perfect with the vav (ו) consecutive; it carries the future nuance of the preceding verbs of instruction, but by switching the subject to Jacob, indicates the expected result of the subterfuge. 2127:10tn Heb “so that.” The conjunction indicates purpose or result. 2227:11tn Heb “And Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, ‘Look, Esau my brother is a hairy man, but I am a smooth [skinned] man.’” The order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons. 2327:12tn Heb “Perhaps my father will feel me and I will be in his eyes like a mocker.” The Hebrew expression “I will be in his eyes like” means “I would appear to him as.” 2427:13tn Heb “upon me your curse.” 2527:13tn Heb “only listen to my voice.” 2627:14tn The words “the goats” are not in the Hebrew text, but are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. 2727:14tn Heb “his mother.” This has been replaced by the pronoun “she” in the translation for stylistic reasons. 2827:16tn In the Hebrew text the object (“the skins of the young goats”) precedes the verb. The disjunctive clause draws attention to this key element in the subterfuge. 2927:16tn The word “hands” probably includes the forearms here. How the skins were attached is not specified in the Hebrew text; cf. NLT “she made him a pair of gloves.” 3027:17tn Heb “gave…into the hand of.” 3127:18tn Heb “and he said”; the referent (Isaac) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 3227:18sn Which are you, my son? Isaac’s first question shows that the deception is going to require more subterfuge than Rebekah had anticipated. Jacob will have to pull off the deceit. 3327:19tn Heb “get up and sit.” This may mean simply “sit up,” or it may indicate that he was to get up from his couch and sit at a table. 3427:19tn Heb “so that your soul may bless me.” These words, though not reported by Rebekah to Jacob (see v. 7) accurately reflect what Isaac actually said to Esau (see v. 4). Perhaps Jacob knew more than Rebekah realized, but it is more likely that this was an idiom for sincere blessing with which Jacob was familiar. At any rate, his use of the precise wording was a nice, convincing touch. 3527:20tn Heb “What is this?” The enclitic pronoun “this” adds emphasis to the question, which is comparable to the English rhetorical question, “How in the world?” 3627:20tn Heb “you hastened to find.” In translation the infinitive becomes the main verb and the first verb becomes adverbial. 3727:20tn Heb “caused to meet before me.” 3827:20tn Heb “and he said, ‘Because the Lord your God….’” The order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons. 3927:21tn Following the imperative, the cohortative (with prefixed conjunction) indicates purpose or result. 4027:21tn Heb “Are you this one, Esau, my son, or not?” On the use of the interrogative particle here, see BDB 210 s.v. הֲ. 4127:23tn Heb “and he blessed him.” The referents of the pronouns “he” (Isaac) and “him” (Jacob) have been specified in the translation for clarity. 4227:24tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 4327:25tn Heb “and he said”; the referent (Isaac) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 4427:25tn Heb “Bring near to me and I will eat of the wild game, my son.” Following the imperative, the cohortative with the prefixed conjunction indicates purpose or result. 4527:25tn Heb “so that my soul may bless you.” The presence of נַפְשִׁי (nafshi, “my soul”) as subject emphasizes Isaac’s heartfelt desire to do this. The conjunction indicates that the ritual meal must be first eaten before the formal blessing may be given. 4627:25tn Heb “and he brought”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 4727:25tn Heb “and he drank”; the referent (Isaac) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 4827:27tn Heb “and he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 4927:27tn Heb “and he smelled the smell”; the referent (Isaac) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 5027:27tn Heb “see.” 5127:28tn Heb “and from the dew of the sky.” 5227:28tn Heb “and from the fatness.” 5327:29tn Heb “and be.” The verb is an imperative, which is used rhetorically in this oracle of blessing. It is an invitation to exercise authority his brothers and indicates that he is granted such authority by the patriarch of the family. Furthermore, the blessing enables the recipient to accomplish this. 5427:29tn The Hebrew word is גְבִיר (gevir, “lord, mighty one”). The one being blessed will be stronger and therefore more powerful than his brother. See Gen 25:23. The feminine form of this rare noun means “mistress” or “queen-mother.” 5527:29tn Following the imperative, the prefixed verbal form (which is either an imperfect or a jussive) with the prefixed conjunction indicates purpose or result. 5627:30tn The use of the infinitive absolute before the finite form of the verb makes the construction emphatic. 5727:30tn Heb “the presence of Isaac his father.” The repetition of the proper name (“Isaac”) was 5827:30tn Heb “and Esau his brother came from his hunt.” 5927:31tn Heb “and he said to his father”; the referent of “he” (Esau) has been specified in the translation for clarity, while the words “his father” have been replaced by the pronoun “him” for stylistic reasons. 6027:31tn Or “arise” (i.e., sit up). 6127:31tn Heb “so that your soul may bless me.” 6227:32tn Heb “said.” 6327:32tn Heb “and he said, ‘I [am] your son, your firstborn.’” The order of the introductory clause and the direct discourse has been rearranged for stylistic reasons. 6427:33tn Heb “and Isaac trembled with a great trembling to excess.” The verb “trembled” is joined with a cognate accusative, which is modified by an adjective “great,” and a prepositional phrase “to excess.” All of this is emphatic, showing the violence of Isaac’s reaction to the news. 6527:33tn Heb “Who then is he who hunted game and brought [it] to me so that I ate from all before you arrived and blessed him?” 6627:34tn The temporal clause is introduced with the temporal indicator and has the infinitive as its verb. 6727:34tn Heb “and he yelled [with] a great and bitter yell to excess.” 6827:35tn Heb “and he said”; the referent (Isaac) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 6927:35tn Or “took”; “received.” 7027:36tn Heb “Is he not rightly named Jacob?” The rhetorical question, since it expects a positive reply, has been translated as a declarative statement. 7127:36sn He has tripped me up. When originally given, the name Jacob was a play on the word “heel” (see Gen 25:26). The name (since it is a verb) probably means something like “may he protect,” that is, as a rearguard, dogging the heels. This name was probably chosen because of the immediate association with the incident of grabbing the heel. Esau gives the name “Jacob” a negative connotation here, the meaning “to trip up; to supplant.” 7227:38tn Heb “Bless me, me also, my father.” The words “my father” have not been repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons. 7327:38tn Heb “and Esau lifted his voice and wept.” 7427:39tn Heb “look.” 7527:39tn Heb “from the fatness.” 7627:40sn You will tear off his yoke from your neck. It may be that this prophetic blessing found its fulfillment when Jerusalem fell and Edom got its revenge. The oracle makes Edom subservient to Israel and suggests the Edomites would live away from the best land and be forced to sustain themselves by violent measures. 7727:41tn Or “bore a grudge against” (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV). The Hebrew verb שָׂטַם (satam) describes persistent hatred. 7827:41tn Heb “because of the blessing which his father blessed him.” 7927:41tn Heb “said in his heart.” The expression may mean “said to himself.” Even if this is the case, v. 42 makes it clear that he must have shared his intentions with someone, because the news reached Rebekah. 8027:41tn Heb “days.” 8127:41tn The cohortative here expresses Esau’s determined resolve to kill Jacob. 8227:42tn Heb “and the words of Esau her older son were told to Rebekah.” 8327:42tn Heb “she sent and called for.” 8427:42tn Heb “is consoling himself with respect to you to kill you.” The only way Esau had of dealing with his anger at the moment was to plan to kill his brother after the death of Isaac. 8527:43tn Heb “listen to my voice.” 8627:43tn Heb “arise, flee.” 8727:44tn Heb “a few days.” Rebekah probably downplays the length of time Jacob will be gone, perhaps to encourage him and assure him that things will settle down soon. She probably expects Esau’s anger to die down quickly. However, Jacob ends up being gone twenty years and he never sees Rebekah again. 8827:45tn The words “stay there” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. 8927:45tn Heb “and I will send and I will take you from there.” The verb “send” has no object in the Hebrew text; one must be supplied in the translation. Either “someone” or “a message” could be supplied, but since in those times a message would require a messenger, “someone” has been used. 9027:45tn If Jacob stayed, he would be killed and Esau would be forced to run away. 9127:46tn Heb “loathe my life.” The Hebrew verb translated “loathe” refers to strong disgust (see Lev 20:23). 9227:46tn Some translate the Hebrew term “Heth” as “Hittites” here (see also Gen 23:3), but this gives the impression that these people were the classical Hittites of Anatolia. However, there is no known connection between these sons of Heth, apparently a Canaanite group (see Gen 10:15), and the Hittites of Asia Minor. See H. A. Hoffner, Jr., “Hittites,” Peoples of the Old Testament World, 152-53. 9327:46tn Heb “If Jacob takes a wife from the daughters of Heth, like these, from the daughters of the land, why to me life?”