1 So Isaac called for Jacob and blessed him. Then he commanded him, “You must not marry a Canaanite woman!1 2 Leave immediately2 for Paddan Aram! Go to the house of Bethuel, your mother’s father, and find yourself a wife there, among the daughters of Laban, your mother’s brother. 3 May the sovereign God3 bless you! May he make you fruitful and give you a multitude of descendants!4 Then you will become5 a large nation.6 4 May he give you and your descendants the blessing he gave to Abraham7 so that you may possess the land8 God gave to Abraham, the land where you have been living as a temporary resident.”9 5 So Isaac sent Jacob on his way, and he went to Paddan Aram, to Laban son of Bethuel the Aramean and brother of Rebekah, the mother of Jacob and Esau.

6 Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him off to Paddan Aram to find a wife there.10 As he blessed him,11 Isaac commanded him, “You must not marry a Canaanite woman.”12 7 Jacob obeyed his father and mother and left for Paddan Aram. 8 Then Esau realized13 that the Canaanite women14 were displeasing to15 his father Isaac. 9 So Esau went to Ishmael and married16 Mahalath, the sister of Nebaioth and daughter of Abraham’s son Ishmael, along with the wives he already had.

Jacob’s Dream at Bethel

10 Meanwhile Jacob left Beer Sheba and set out for Haran. 11 He reached a certain place17 where he decided to camp because the sun had gone down.18 He took one of the stones19 and placed it near his head.20 Then he fell asleep21 in that place 12 and had a dream.22 He saw23 a stairway24 erected on the earth with its top reaching to the heavens. The angels of God were going up and coming down it 13 and the Lord stood at its top. He said, “I am the Lord, the God of your grandfather Abraham and the God of your father Isaac.25 I will give you and your descendants the ground26 you are lying on. 14 Your descendants will be like the dust of the earth,27 and you will spread out28 to the west, east, north, and south. All the families of the earth will pronounce blessings on one another29 using your name and that of your descendants.30 15 I am with you!31 I will protect you wherever you go and will bring you back to this land. I will not leave you until I have done what I promised you!

16 Then Jacob woke up32 and thought,33Surely the Lord is in this place, but I did not realize it! 17 He was afraid and said, “What an awesome place this is! This is nothing else than the house of God! This is the gate of heaven!

18 Early34 in the morning Jacob35 took the stone he had placed near his head36 and set it up as a sacred stone.37 Then he poured oil on top of it. 19 He called that place Bethel,38 although the former name of the town was Luz. 20 Then Jacob made a vow, saying, “If God is with me and protects me on this journey I am taking and gives me food39 to eat and clothing to wear, 21 and I return safely to my father’s home,40 then the Lord will become my God. 22 Then this stone41 that I have set up as a sacred stone will be the house of God, and I will surely42 give you back a tenth of everything you give me.”43

128:1tn Heb “you must not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan.” 228:2tn Heb “Arise! Go!” The first of the two imperatives is adverbial and stresses the immediacy of the departure. 328:3tn Heb “El Shaddai.” See the extended note on the phrase “sovereign God” in Gen 17:1. 428:3tn Heb “and make you fruitful and multiply you.” See Gen 17:6, 20 for similar terminology. 528:3tn The perfect verbal form with vav (ו) consecutive here indicates consequence. The collocation הָיָה + preposition לְ (hayah + lÿ) means “become.” 628:3tn Heb “an assembly of peoples.” 728:4tn Heb “and may he give to you the blessing of Abraham, to you and to your offspring with you.” The name “Abraham” is an objective genitive here; this refers to the blessing that God gave to Abraham. 828:4tn The words “the land” have been supplied in the translation for clarity. 928:4tn Heb “the land of your sojournings,” that is, the land where Jacob had been living as a resident alien, as his future descendants would after him. 1028:6tn Heb “to take for himself from there a wife.” 1128:6tn The infinitive construct with the preposition and the suffix form a temporal clause. 1228:6tn Heb “you must not take a wife from the daughters of Canaan.” 1328:8tn Heb “saw.” 1428:8tn Heb “the daughters of Canaan.” 1528:8tn Heb “evil in the eyes of.” 1628:9tn Heb “took for a wife.” 1728:11tn Heb “the place.” The article may indicate simply that the place is definite in the mind of the narrator. However, as the story unfolds the place is transformed into a holy place. See A. P. Ross, “Jacob’s Vision: The Founding of Bethel,” BSac 142 (1985): 224-37. 1828:11tn Heb “and he spent the night there because the sun had gone down.” 1928:11tn Heb “he took from the stones of the place,” which here means Jacob took one of the stones (see v. 18). 2028:11tn Heb “and he put [it at] the place of his head.” The text does not actually say the stone was placed under his head to serve as a pillow, although most interpreters and translators assume this. It is possible the stone served some other purpose. Jacob does not seem to have been a committed monotheist yet (see v. 20-21) so he may have believed it contained some spiritual power. Note that later in the story he anticipates the stone becoming the residence of God (see v. 22). Many cultures throughout the world view certain types of stones as magical and/or sacred. See J. G. Fraser, Folklore in the Old Testament, 231-37. 2128:11tn Heb “lay down.” 2228:12tn Heb “and dreamed.” 2328:12tn Heb “and look.” The scene which Jacob witnessed is described in three clauses introduced with הִנֵּה (hinneh). In this way the narrator invites the reader to witness the scene through Jacob’s eyes. J. P. Fokkelman points out that the particle goes with a lifted arm and an open mouth: “There, a ladder! Oh, angels! and look, the Lord himself” (Narrative Art in Genesis [SSN], 51-52). 2428:12tn The Hebrew noun סֻלָּם (sullam, “ladder, stairway”) occurs only here in the OT, but there appears to be an Akkadian cognate simmiltu (with metathesis of the second and third consonants and a feminine ending) which has a specialized meaning of “stairway, ramp.” See H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena (SBLDS), 34. For further discussion see C. Houtman, “What Did Jacob See in His Dream at Bethel? Some Remarks on Genesis 28:10-22,” VT 27 (1977): 337-52; J. G. Griffiths, “The Celestial Ladder and the Gate of Heaven,” ExpTim 76 (1964/65): 229-30; and A. R. Millard, “The Celestial Ladder and the Gate of Heaven,” ExpTim 78 (1966/67): 86-87. 2528:13tn Heb “the God of your father Abraham and the God of Isaac.” The Hebrew word for “father” can typically be used in a broader sense than the English word, in this case referring to Abraham (who was Jacob’s grandfather). For stylistic reasons and for clarity, the words “your father” are supplied with “Isaac” in the translation. 2628:13tn The Hebrew term אֶרֶץ (’erets) can mean “[the] earth,” “land,” “region,” “piece of ground,” or “ground” depending on the context. Here the term specifically refers to the plot of ground on which Jacob was lying, but at the same time this stands by metonymy for the entire land of Canaan. 2728:14tn This is the same Hebrew word translated “ground” in the preceding verse. 2828:14tn The verb is singular in the Hebrew; Jacob is addressed as the representative of his descendants. 2928:14tn Theoretically the Niphal stem can be translated either as passive or reflexive/reciprocal. (The Niphal of “bless” is only used in formulations of the Abrahamic covenant. See Gen 12:2; 18:18; 28:14.) Traditionally the verb is taken as passive here, as if Jacob were going to be a channel or source of blessing. But in other formulations of the Abrahamic covenant (see Gen 22:18; 26:4) the Hitpael replaces this Niphal form, suggesting a translation “will bless (i.e., pronounce blessings upon) themselves/one another.” The Hitpael of “bless” is used with a reflexive/reciprocal sense in Deut 29:18; Ps 72:17; Isa 65:16; Jer 4:2. Gen 28:14 predicts that Jacob will be held up as a paradigm of divine blessing and that people will use his name in their blessing formulae (see Gen 12:2 and 18:18 as well, where Abram/Abraham receives this promise). For examples of blessing formulae utilizing an individual as an example of blessing see Gen 48:20 and Ruth 4:11. 3028:14tn Heb “and they will pronounce blessings by you, all the families of the earth, and by your offspring.” 3128:15tn Heb “Look, I [am] with you.” The clause is a nominal clause; the verb to be supplied could be present (as in the translation) or future, “Look, I [will be] with you” (cf. NEB). 3228:16tn Heb “woke up from his sleep.” This has been simplified in the translation for stylistic reasons. 3328:16tn Heb “said.” 3428:18tn Heb “and he got up early…and he took.” 3528:18tn Heb “he”; the referent (Jacob) has been specified in the translation for clarity. 3628:18tn See the note on this phrase in v. 11. 3728:18tn Heb “standing stone.”sn Sacred stone. Such a stone could be used as a boundary marker, a burial stone, or as a shrine. Here the stone is intended to be a reminder of the stairway that was “erected” and on which the Lord “stood.” (In Hebrew the word translated “sacred stone” is derived from the verb translated “erected” in v. 12 and “stood” in v. 13. Since the top of the stairway reached the heavens where the Lord stood, Jacob poured oil on the top of the stone. See C. F. Graesser, “Standing Stones in Ancient Palestine,” BA 35 (1972): 34-63; and E. Stockton, “Sacred Pillars in the Bible,” ABR 20 (1972): 16-32. 3828:19tn The name Bethel means “house of God” in Hebrew (see v. 17).map For location see Map4-G4; Map5-C1; Map6-E3; Map7-D1; Map8-G3. 3928:20tn Heb “bread,” although the term can be used for food in general. 4028:21tn Heb “and I return in peace to the house of my father.” 4128:22tn The disjunctive clause structure (conjunction + noun/subject) is used to highlight the statement. 4228:22tn The infinitive absolute is used before the finite verb for emphasis. 4328:22tn Heb “and all which you give to me I will surely give a tenth of it to you.” The disjunctive clause structure (conjunction + noun/object) highlights this statement as well.